15 Jul 2012

Politics in sport and physical activity

The notion of politics and sport is not new, as articles, books, and book chapters have been devoted to capturing the espoused ideologies (see Black & Nauright, 1998; Sage, 1998), movements (see Edwards, 1969; Hahn, 1984; Wheeler, 1978), and experiences of groups (Abney, 2007; Anderson & South, 2007) in regards to these interactions. So, how does this chapter add to or fill the gap of existing writings on politics and sport? Utilizing a critical theoretical lens (see Carter, 2010), our goal is to present, or more specifically, provide a generational vantage when we: a) define the meaning of sport, b) understand the relationship between sport and politics; and, c) contextualize how the notion of ideologies and power in politics impacts sport and physical activity throughout four generations.

Book Chapter Akilah Carter-Francique and Mike Regan, Jr.

Politics in sport and physical activity

Akilah Carter-Francique and Mike Regan, Jr.
Book Chapter
About The Publication

The notion of politics and sport is not new, as articles, books, and book chapters have been devoted to capturing the espoused ideologies (see Black & Nauright, 1998; Sage, 1998), movements (see Edwards, 1969; Hahn, 1984; Wheeler, 1978), and experiences of groups (Abney, 2007; Anderson & South, 2007) in regards to these interactions. So, how does this chapter add to or fill the gap of existing writings on politics and sport? Utilizing a critical theoretical lens (see Carter, 2010), our goal is to present, or more specifically, provide a generational vantage when we: a) define the meaning of sport, b) understand the relationship between sport and politics; and, c) contextualize how the notion of ideologies and power in politics impacts sport and physical activity throughout four generations.

01 Apr 2014

Systemic racism theory: Critically examining college sport leadership

The purpose of this paper was to introduce the systemic racism theoretical framework (Feagin, 2006) to college sport to better facilitate in analyzing both the dominant positioning of whites and the lack of advancement of blacks in leadership positions. As a critical sociological theory, systemic racism has strategically and critically illustrated historical-to-contemporary, deep-to-surface level, and society-wide links of racial oppression, through empirical facts and the application of its six primary tenets. Because sport represents a microcosm of society, reflecting its ideals, hierarchies, and problems (see Edwards, 1973; Eitzen & Sage, 1997; Sage, 1998), systemic racism theory guided the current paper in uncovering a racial oppressive reality in the leadership structure of college sport. The paper further illustrates the significance of positioning racism in the sporting context if real change is to occur, as well as offers practical directions for change.

Book Chapter Mike Regan, Jr., Akilah Carter-Francique, and Joe R. Feagin

Systemic racism theory: Critically examining college sport leadership

Mike Regan, Jr., Akilah Carter-Francique, and Joe R. Feagin
Book Chapter
About The Publication

The purpose of this paper was to introduce the systemic racism theoretical framework (Feagin, 2006) to college sport to better facilitate in analyzing both the dominant positioning of whites and the lack of advancement of blacks in leadership positions. As a critical sociological theory, systemic racism has strategically and critically illustrated historical-to-contemporary, deep-to-surface level, and society-wide links of racial oppression, through empirical facts and the application of its six primary tenets. Because sport represents a microcosm of society, reflecting its ideals, hierarchies, and problems (see Edwards, 1973; Eitzen & Sage, 1997; Sage, 1998), systemic racism theory guided the current paper in uncovering a racial oppressive reality in the leadership structure of college sport. The paper further illustrates the significance of positioning racism in the sporting context if real change is to occur, as well as offers practical directions for change.

20 Jan 2017

College sport leadership: Systemic racial employment barriers

Blacks in US sports have made significant strides since the landmark signing of Jackie Robinson by the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. While racial integration improved opportunities for black sport participation on a large scale, this was not the case for black leaders in sport, the owners, managers, athletic directors, and coaches. As Rhoden (2006: 139) suggests, “The key to the ultimate appeal of integration for white coaches was that it would not mean a corresponding loss of power; in essence, whites could have their cake and eat it, too.” This pattern continues to exist at the many levels of U.S. sports, but it is the collegiate level that currently exhibits the slowest progression in equitable positioning of blacks as athletic leaders.

Book Chapter Mike Regan, Jr. and Joe R. Feagin

College sport leadership: Systemic racial employment barriers

Mike Regan, Jr. and Joe R. Feagin
Book Chapter
About The Publication

Blacks in US sports have made significant strides since the landmark signing of Jackie Robinson by the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. While racial integration improved opportunities for black sport participation on a large scale, this was not the case for black leaders in sport, the owners, managers, athletic directors, and coaches. As Rhoden (2006: 139) suggests, “The key to the ultimate appeal of integration for white coaches was that it would not mean a corresponding loss of power; in essence, whites could have their cake and eat it, too.” This pattern continues to exist at the many levels of U.S. sports, but it is the collegiate level that currently exhibits the slowest progression in equitable positioning of blacks as athletic leaders.

01 Aug 2011

Political activism, racial identity and the commercial endorsement of athletes

With a focus on African American male athletes as product endorsers, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of activism type and level of racial identity on perceptions of trustworthiness and athlete-product fit. Participants (N = 73 White undergraduate students) participated in a 2 (activism type: anti-obesity, anti-war) × 2 (level of racial identity: low, high) experimental study. Results indicate that perceptions of trustworthiness were highest when the athlete was engaged in non-controversial activism and had a strong racial identity. These perceptions were significantly associated with endorser-product (i.e. New Balance shoes) fit, even beyond the effects of activism type, level of racial identity, and athlete attractiveness. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications.

Journal Article George B Cunningham and Mike Regan, Jr.

Political activism, racial identity and the commercial endorsement of athletes

George B Cunningham and Mike Regan, Jr.
Journal Article
About The Publication

With a focus on African American male athletes as product endorsers, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of activism type and level of racial identity on perceptions of trustworthiness and athlete-product fit. Participants (N = 73 White undergraduate students) participated in a 2 (activism type: anti-obesity, anti-war) × 2 (level of racial identity: low, high) experimental study. Results indicate that perceptions of trustworthiness were highest when the athlete was engaged in non-controversial activism and had a strong racial identity. These perceptions were significantly associated with endorser-product (i.e. New Balance shoes) fit, even beyond the effects of activism type, level of racial identity, and athlete attractiveness. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications.

15 Jun 2012

Analysis of Homologous Reproduction in Community College Athletics

The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of homologous reproduction in the community college context. The authors analyzed the gender of the athletic director, women’s basketball head coach, softball head coach, and volleyball head coach at 611 community colleges. Results indicate that most athletic directors (82.7%) were men. Chi-square analysis indicated that the gender of the athletic director was statistically associated with the gender of the head coach for both women’s basketball and softball, as well as the likelihood of homogeneous staffs (i.e., the three head coaches all being either female or male). Results are discussed in terms of implications for practice.

Journal Article Mike Regan, Jr. and George B. Cunningham

Analysis of Homologous Reproduction in Community College Athletics

Mike Regan, Jr. and George B. Cunningham
Journal Article
About The Publication

The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of homologous reproduction in the community college context. The authors analyzed the gender of the athletic director, women’s basketball head coach, softball head coach, and volleyball head coach at 611 community colleges. Results indicate that most athletic directors (82.7%) were men. Chi-square analysis indicated that the gender of the athletic director was statistically associated with the gender of the head coach for both women’s basketball and softball, as well as the likelihood of homogeneous staffs (i.e., the three head coaches all being either female or male). Results are discussed in terms of implications for practice.